Text #1628Natural History. Series: Natural History. Vol. 1 .
[Plin. Nat. 2.6.36. Translated by H. Rackham. Harvard University Press. 1967. (10 Vols.) pp. 191--192]
Below the sun revolves a very large star named Venus, which varies its course alternately, and whose alternative names in themselves indicate its rivalry with the sun and moon - when in advance and rising before dawn it receives the name of Lucifer, as being another sun and bringing the dawn, whereas when it shines after sunset it is named Vesper, as prolonging the daylight, or as being a deputy for the moon. This property of Venus was first discovered by Pythagoras of Samos about the 42nd Olympiad1, 142 years after the foundation of Rome2. Further it surpasses all the other stars in magnitude, and is so brilliant that alone among stars it casts a shadow by its rays.