Geographical sites:

  • Phlegraean Islands (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #432980)
    Pleiades_icon Nesis Ins. island Description: A volcanic islet of the Phlegraean Islands archipelago, Nesis was in antiquity the site of many elite seaside villas.


Text #4012

Strabo. Geography. Series: Geography. Vol. 2
[Strab. 5.4. Translated by Horace Leonard Jones and John Robert Sitlington. William Heinemann; G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1967. (8 Vols.) p. 457]

The island of Prochyta lies off Cape Misenum, and it is a fragment broken off of Pithecussae. Pithecussae was once settled by Eretrians and also Chalcidians, who, although they had prospered there on account of the fruitfulness of the soil and on account of the gold mines, forsook the island as the result of a quarrel; later on they were also driven out of the island by earthquakes, and by eruptions of fire, sea, and hot waters; for the island has “fistulas” of this sort, and it was these that caused also the people sent thither by Hiero, the tyrant of Syracuse to forsake the island and the fortress they had erected there; and then the Neapolitans came over and took possession.

Hence, also, the myth according to which Typhon lies beneath this island, and when he turns his body the flames and the waters, and sometimes even small islands containing boiling water, spout forth. But what Pindar says is more plausible, since he starts with the actual phenomena; for this whole channel, beginning at the Cumaean country and extending as far as Sicily, is full of fire, and has caverns deep down in the earth that form a single whole, connecting not only with one another but also with the mainland; and therefore, not only Aetna clearly has such a character as it is reported by all to have, but also the Lipari Islands, and the districts round about Dicaearchia, Neapolis, and Baiae, and the island of Pithecussae. This, I say, is Pindar’s thought when he says that Typhon lies beneath the whole region: “Now, however, both Sicily and the sea-fenced cliffs beyond Cumae press hard upon his shaggy breast.”

Text #8745

Pliny. Natural History. Series: Natural History. Vol. 1
[Plin. Nat. 2.89. Translated by H. Rackham. Harvard University Press. 1967. (10 Vols.) p. 355]

So also the Monkey Islands are said to have risen in the bay of Campania, and later one among them, Mount Epopos, is said to have suddenly shot up a great flame and then to have been levelled with the surface of the plain. In the same plain also a town was sucked down into the depths, and another earthquake caused a swamp to emerge, and another overturned mountains and threw up the island of Procida.

Text #4013

Gates & Ritchie. Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes
[p. 122]

The volcanic island Ischia stands close to Vesuvius, in the Bay of Naples, and has been active since earliest historical times. Resurgent uplift at Ischia, similar to that obsered at Iwo Jima, had led some observers to speculate that Ischia has a Caldera, althought this interpetation is not certain. There has been sonsidered long-term ground deformation at Ischia. One sign of this deformation is the site of a Roman metal foundry on the northeast side of the island, now about 15 to 20 feet underwater. On the island’s southern side, a beach has been uplifted almost 100 feet…

Although uplift at Ischia may be volcanic in origin, it also is possible that Tectonic Activity is involved. … An eruption around 470 BC drove away a Syracusan colony on the island. Residents of the island had to flee yet again in an eruption that occurred between approximately 400 BC and 350 BC. This eruption is said to have followed earthquake activity. A tsunami may have accompanied an eruption, possibly of Monte Epomeo around 350 BC. Another eruption may have taken place in 91 BC. … The eruptive history of Ischia over the next thousand years is sketchy, but eruptions appear to have occurred around AD 80, 180, 222, and 284-305.

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