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Text #1

"Latin War", in Wikipedia.
[Liv. . ] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_War

The Roman–Latin wars were a series of wars fought between ancient Rome (including both the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Republic) and the Latins, from the earliest stages of the history of Rome until the final subjugation of the Latins to Rome in the aftermath of the Latin War….

The (Second) Latin War (340–338 BC) was a conflict between the Roman Republic and its neighbors the Latin peoples of ancient Italy. It ended in the dissolution of the Latin League, and incorporation of its territory into the Roman sphere of influence, with the Latins gaining partial rights and varying levels of citizenship.

The most comprehensive source on the Latin War is the Roman historian Livy (59 BC – AD 17), who narrates the war in the eighth book of his history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita. Two other substantial narratives have also survived, a fragment from the Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (c. 60 BC–after 7 BC), a Greek contemporary of Livy, and a summary by the 12th century Byzantine chronicler John Zonaras based on the Roman history of Cassius Dio (AD 150 – 235). Modern historians consider the ancient accounts of the Latin War to be a mixture of fact and fiction. All the surviving authors lived long after the Latin War and relied on the works of earlier writers. Several of the historians used by Livy experienced the Social War (91–88 BC) between Rome and her Italian allies and seem to have interpreted the Latin War in the terms of that war; this has introduced anachronistic elements into the historical record….

There is a general resemblance between the rhetoric of the speeches Livy has written for L. Annius and the complaints and demands made by Rome’s Italian allies in the years before the Social War. …

The consuls elected for 340 were Titus Manlius Torquatus, for the third time, and Publius Decius Mus. The annually elected consuls were the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and responsible for commanding Rome’s armies in times of war.

Modern historians have not put much credence in these events supposed to have taken place following the end of the First Samnite War, believing them to be largely invented. There are several similarities with the events supposed to have started the Samnite War, the Samnites are once again at war with the Sidicini and a surrender offer is made to Rome, and this duplication is unlikely to be historical. This time the surrender is refused, showing the moral superiority of the Roman senate. The supposed secret plotting between the Latins and Campani are also likely to be inventions, inspired by similar secret talks held by the Italians before the outbreak of the Social War, news of which were also leaked to the Romans.

Like the Roman senate rejected an embassy from the Italian insurgents in 90 BC, so the Latin embassy of 340 BC is also rejected. Later, in his account of the Second Punic War, Livy mentions that some of his sources claimed that the Capuans, after the Battle of Cannae, had similarly sent an embassy and demanded to receive an equal share in the government of the Roman Republic. He, however, rejected this as a duplication of the demands made by the Latins at the outbreak of the Latin War. Modern historians do not believe that the Latins made any demand for a consul and half the senate in 340. It is possible that Capua really did so in 216, but most likely Livy was correct to consider this a duplicate of accounts of the Latin War….

Instead, they have proposed that historically these were political demands made by the Italians at the outbreak of the Social War. … By the early 1st century BC, Rome had risen to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean and Roman citizenship was a highly desired favour. However, such sentiments are considered anachronistic for the 4th century. In 340, Rome was still only a local power in Latium, but whose aggressiveness and recent expansion into Campania was an increasing threat to the independence of the smaller Latin communities who risked becoming entirely surrounded by Roman territory. Rather than being caused by the Roman refusal to share their government with the other Latins, the Latin War was a final bid by the Latins to preserve their own independence. In this endeavour they were joined by the Volsci, who were much in same situation as the Latins, and the Campani, Sidicini and Aurunci, three peoples who all risked being squeezed between the growing powers of Central Italy, Rome and the Samnites. …

The Latins entered Samnium; the Roman-Samnite army moved to the Fucine Lake, then, avoiding Latium, entered the Campanian territory and attacked the Latins and Campanians near Mount Vesuvius. In the Battle of Vesuvius, the Romans, under consuls Decius Mus and T. Manlius Torquatus Imperiosus, defeated the Latins. According to Roman sources, Manlius reinstated army discipline by executing his son for his unintentional disobedience, while Decius sacrificed his own life to the gods for the Roman victory.

One year later, Manlius defeated the Latins at the Battle of Trifanum. The Latins were finally defeated in 338 BC at the Battle of Antium[39] on the river Astura, where Gaius Maenius commanded the Roman naval forces which defeated the combined Latin armies of Antium, Lanuvium, Aricia and Velitrae.

The Latins, forced to leave Campania, moved to Latium, where they put up a long yet unsuccessful resistance against the Roman forces. The defeated Latin peoples were obliged to recognize Roman pre-eminence. Some of the Latin towns were Romanized, others became partially Roman, adopting Roman magistratures, while some others became Roman colonies.

Text #9204

"Battle of Trifanum", in Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_T...

The Battle of Trifanum was fought in 340 BC between the Roman Republic and the Latins. The Roman force was led by Manlius Imperiosus. He pursued the Latins to the north following the Battle of Vesuvius and met them at Trifanum near the mouth of the Liri River. Livy records that the two forces dumped their baggage and fought where they met. He claimed that the Romans were victorious and that their victory was so crushing that afterwards, when the consul entered Latium, the Latins immediately surrendered As the war continued for another two years it may be that the Latins were surprised at Trifanum and dispersed.

Text #9205

"Battle of Vesuvius", in Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_V...

The Battle of Vesuvius (also known as the battle of the Veseris) was the first recorded battle of the Latin War. The battle was fought near Mount Vesuvius in 340 BC between the Romans, and their allies the Samnites, and a coalition of several peoples, Latins, Campanians, Volsci, Sidicini, and Aurunci. The surviving sources on the battle, however, focus almost solely on the Romans (led by Titus Manlius Torquatus and Publius Decius Mus) and the Latins.

The battle became famous for two episodes said to have taken place: Manlius Torquatus’ execution of his own son after he disobeyed orders and fought an enemy champion in single combat, and the self-sacrifice of Decius Mus, who devoted himself and the enemy army to the gods of the underworld, and then charged into the enemy lines and was slain.

After Decius Mus had fallen, consul Manlius Torquatus led his veteran reserve against Latin lines and killed or captured nearly three fourths of the Latin army. The remaining soldiers of the Latin army fled, but because the Roman loss was so great, they could not pursue their enemies.

According to Livy, both armies arrived in the vicinity of Mount Vesuvius near the Veseris river. The consuls had ordered that no man was to leave his post to fight the enemy unless ordered to do so. However, after this order was put into motion Titus Manlius Torquatus, consul Manlius Torquatus’ son, led a patrol into Latin territory and was challenged to a single combat against Geminus Maecius (a well known Tusculan warrior). T. Manlius accepted the challenge against his father’s wishes and won the battle. On T. Manlius’ return to camp he was arrested and then beheaded as an example of maintaining discipline.

Decius Mus and Manlius Torquatus both had a dream before the final battle that the Romans would only be victorious if one of the consuls died. Decius and Manlius made a pact that whichever side of the battle opened up, then that leader would sacrifice himself in the battle.

Manlius commanded that his soldiers be stationed on the right and Decius’ forces on the left. Decius’ wing opened and he charged into battle, immediately being killed on the front lines of the Latin army. Manlius then led his forces into battle to victory against the Latin army.

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