Archeology / Climate Evidence

2300BC± 50y , Duration 1700Y

Event #5151: Abrupt Climate Change Syria and Palestine

Stable URL:

Geographical sites:

  • Syria (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #29492)
    Pleiades_icon (As)Syria region Geocontext: Barrington Atlas grid 3 C2
    Description: An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 3 C2 (As)Syria
  • Iudaea (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #687934)
    Pleiades_icon Iudaea region Description: Iudaea was an historical region of the Levant located in the mountainous southern part of the Land of Palestine, roughly corresponding to the southern West Bank. The region's name derives from the biblical tribe of Judah and the associated Kingdom of Judah (ca. 934 until 586 BC).


Text #8930

Mandelkehr. The 2300 BC Event. Series: The 2300 BC Event. Vol. 1
[p. 20]

It is generally agreed that the Early Bronze III (EB III) Age in Syria and Palestine came to an end at 2300 BC1, coinciding with the end of the Ancient Ugarit period on the Syrian coast proposed by Schaeffer2. Hole reports that shortly after this time, all sites in the northeast Syrian region were abandoned, and the region was not resettled until after the first millennium BC. 3 … the EBA societies had a limited hydraulic technology, and were ill-equipped to cope with rapid environmental change…

  1. W. F. Albright: “Some Remarks on the Archaeological Chronology of Palestine Before About 1500 BC”, in R. W. Ehrich (ed.): Chronologies in Old World Archaeology; University of Chicago Press, 1948, p. 51

  2. C. F. A. Schaeffer: Stratigraphie Comparee et Chronologie de l’Asie Source Occidentale; Oxford University Press, 1948, p. 534

  3. F. Hole: “Evidence for Mid-Holocene Environmental Changes in the Western Khabur Drainage, Northeastern Syria”, in H. N. Dalfes, G. Kukla, H. Weiss, (eds.): Third Millennium BC Change and Old World Collapse; Springer, 1994, p. 39

Text #8931

Thompson. Early History of the Israelite Sources
[pp. 181--182]

In ca. 2400-2350 BC, the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze subpluvial climatic phase abruptly came to an end and was succeeded by an excessively hot arid period of drought that lasted until about 1950 BC. The shorter winters and longer, hotter, summers, the lowering of the water table, the reduction of rainfall… brought about an agricultural collapses of disastrous proportions.

Text #8937

"The Scenario of Environmental Degradation in the Tell Leilan Region", in Third Millennium BC Change and Old World Collapse , edited by Weiss, H. N. Dalfes, G. Kukla, H.
[p. 107]

The soil record of the abrupt climate change reveals a weakening of pedological transformations, an increase of surface crusting and wind intensity, and an aerosol fallout rich in glass shards and calcitic spherules. These features characterize an aridification event unique in comparison to other environmental changes recorded over the last 8000 years on the Habur Plains. These changes are both greater and different in nature than the effects of the droughts common to the region’s semi-arid Mediterranean climate.

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