Geographical sites:

  • Iudaea (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #687934)
    Pleiades_icon Iudaea region Description: Iudaea was an historical region of the Levant located in the mountainous southern part of the Land of Palestine, roughly corresponding to the southern West Bank. The region's name derives from the biblical tribe of Judah and the associated Kingdom of Judah (ca. 934 until 586 BC).
  • Syria (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #29492)
    Pleiades_icon (As)Syria region Geocontext: Barrington Atlas grid 3 C2
    Description: An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 3 C2 (As)Syria
  • Lebanon (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #272103)
    Geonames_icon Lebanon independent political entity Geocontext: Asia/Beirut
  • Byblos (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #668216)
    Pleiades_icon Byblos settlement, port Geocontext: Jebeil LEB
    Description: Occupied since the Neolithic period, historical Byblos was originally a major Punic center called Gebal.
  • Megiddo (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #294285)
    Geonames_icon Megiddo populated place Geocontext: Asia/Jerusalem
  • Philoteria (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #678333)
    Pleiades_icon Philoteria settlement Geocontext: Beth Yerah/Khirbet el Kerak ISR
    Description: An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 69 C4 Philoteria
  • Ra’s Shamrā (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #165369)
    Geonames_icon Ra’s Shamrā archaeological/prehistoric site Geocontext: Asia/Damascus


Text #8932

Mandelkehr. The 2300 BC Event. Series: The 2300 BC Event. Vol. 1
[p. 22]

At the same time as the climatic deterioration in Palestine and Syria, there is extensive reports of site destruction, primarily due to earthquakes.

Text #8933

Neev & Bakler & Moshkovitz & Kaufman & Magaritz & Gofna. "Recent Faulting Along the Mediterranean Coast of Israel". Nature. Vol. 245
[pp. 254--256]


The transition from the Early to the Middle Bronze periods about 4000 years ago is remarkably expressed by three physical changes across the coastal belt: (1) the present coastline and the adjoining sea cliff were initiated by rejuvenation of differential vertical movements, (2) the sea transgressed eastward across the present littoral (coastline) belt perhaps more because of subsidence of the sea floor and tilt to the west than to additional eustatic rise of sea level… and (3) the continental block east of the coastline was uplifted…

Text #8934

Mazar. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible
[p. 141]

The final annihilation or abandonment of these cities was one of the most fateful cultural crises in the history of Palestine: the entire Early Bronze Age urban culture in western Palestine collapsed within a short time, to be replaced by a totally different non-urban pattern which lasted for about three hundred years. The exact date, nature, and causes of this crisis are among the major questions concerning the period… It appears that the downfall of the cities was abrupt. Excavations at Megiddo, Beth-Yerah, Ai, Yarmouth, and other EBIII sites have shown that they were abandoned or destroyed when they were at the peak of their urban development.

Text #8935

Thompson. Early History of the Israelite Sources
[pp. 23--28]

… the overwhelming observation drawn from both excavation reports and settlement patterns is that the end of the EBA (Early Bronze Age) was catastrophic, involving destruction of cities, widespread impoverishment, dramatic shrinkage of population, abandonment of large regions which were normally capable of supporting considerable populations by either agriculture or grazing, and the dispersal of population into areas which earlier had been wilderness and which were technologically difficult to farm.

Text #8936

Mandelkehr. The 2300 BC Event. Series: The 2300 BC Event. Vol. 1
[p. 25]

Massive destruction occurred in Syria, similar to that in Palestine. There is strong evidence of site destruction along at least a 100 kilometer north-south line on the eastern side of the Mediterranean in western Syria and Lebanon. Conflagration strata reported by Schaeffer, appear at Ras Shamra, Tell Simiriyan and Byblos, dated to about 2300 BC by cultural correlation. The Byblos site was found to be partially destroyed by fire, leaving a deposit of ash almost a half meter thick about the main temple.

Please view our Legal Notice before you make use of this Database.

See also our Credits page for info on data we are building upon.