Geographical sites:

  • Nineveh (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #874621)
    Pleiades_icon Nineveh/Ninos settlement Geocontext: Kuyunjik IRQ
    Description: The ancient Assyrian city on the river Tigris. Its ruins are located near the modern city of Mosul in Iraq.
  • Kish (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #29630)
    Pleiades_icon Kish island Geocontext: IRN
    Description: Kish is an island in the Persian Gulf.
  • Iran (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #130758)
    Geonames_icon Islamic Republic of Iran independent political entity Geocontext: Asia/Tehran
  • Habur (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #211425278)
    Pleiades_icon al-Ḫābūr aš-Šarqī settlement Description: A place from the TAVO Index
  • Assyria (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #29492)
    Pleiades_icon (As)Syria region Geocontext: Barrington Atlas grid 3 C2
    Description: An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 3 C2 (As)Syria
  • Tel Agrab (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #100042)
    Geonames_icon Tall Abū ‘Agrab hill Geocontext: Asia/Baghdad
  • Tel Asmar (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #90372)
    Geonames_icon Tall Asmar archaeological/prehistoric site Geocontext: Asia/Baghdad
    Description: IQ
  • Tureng Tepe (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #942331)
    Pleiades_icon Tureng tepe/Khosro-shad-Peroz settlement Geocontext: Tureng tepe
    Description: An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 96 C2 Tureng tepe/Khosro-shad-Peroz
  • Jiroft (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #68105)
    Geonames_icon Jīroft plain(s) Geocontext: Asia/Tehran
    Description: IR


Text #8944

Mandelkehr. The 2300 BC Event. Series: The 2300 BC Event. Vol. 1
[pp. 30--32]

The Nineveh site is reported by Lloyd to have suffered a cultural discontinuity at about 2300 BC.1 … Interruption in site occupation is also reported by Schaeffer at Tepe Gawra. Kish was largely abandoned … after a reported disaster, as described by both Moorey and Mallowan. The palace at Kish … was destroyed by fire, the ruins were used as nothing more than a graveyard.2

Monumental public structures are conspicuous by their absence in Post-Akkadian upper Mesopotamia as well as other regions; there is a general decline in authoritative structures in the last quarter of the third millennium BC. …

There is also extensive evidence for the disappearance of large settlements in Iran. Schaeffer reports a stratigraphic and chronological rupture between the V and VI levels of Tepe Giyan in western Iran occurring between 2400 BC and 2300 BC. Similar ruptures are reported by him at Tureng Tepe and Tepe Hissar IIB in northeastern Iran also dated at about 2300 BC.3 Weiss states that “Between 2200 and 1900 BC people fled the Habur and Assyrian plains en masse.”4

A supporting item for the deterioration in Mesopotamia is the essential population disappearance to the west in the Kur River Basin just to the east in southwestern Iran5

…The recently discovered site of Jiroft in southwestern Iran… Excavation has led to the discovery of a ziggurat with more than four million mud bricks dating back to 2300 BC. … The handwriting discovered in Jiroft is apparently unlike any other handwriting so far discovered. … the latest dating for the site appears to be 2300 BC, indicating the possibility that the site terminated at this time.6

  1. l. Lloyd: Archaeology of Mesopotamia; Thames and Hudson, 1978, p. 66

  2. P. R. S. Moorey: “The City of Kish in Iraq: Archaeology and History, ca. 3500 BC to AD 600”, American Journal of Archaeology Vol. 80 (1976), pp. 65, 66. E. L. Mallowan: “The Early Dynastic Period in Mesopotamia”, in I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond (eds): Cambridge Ancient History Vol. I, Part 2, Early History of the Middle East; Cambridge University Press, 1971, pp. 274, 275.

  3. C. F. A. Schaeffer: Stratigraphie Comparee et Chronologie de l’Asie Source Occidentale; Oxford University Press, 1948, p. 535.

  4. H. Weiss: “Desert Storm” The Sciences Vol. 36 (M/J 1996), p. 33.

  5. V. M. Summer: “An Archaeological Estimate of Population Trends Since 6000 BC in the Kur River Basin, Fars Province, Iran”, in M. Taddei (ed): South Asian Archaeology, 1986, Part 1, Ninth International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, 1987, pp. 10, 11.

  6. Richard Covington: “What Was Jiroft?” Saudi Aramco World, Sept/Oct 2004, Vol. 55, No. 5: “Yousef Madjidzadeh, author of a three-volume history of Mesopotamia and a leading Iranian authority on the third millennium BC, has long hypothesized that Jiroft is the legendary land of Aratta, a “lost” Bronze Age kingdom of renown. A handful of colleagues agrees, including the French epigrapher François Vallat, who compares Jiroft to the Elamite kingdom of southwestern Iran. Perhaps the most impressive discoveries have been staggering numbers of carved and decorated vases, cups, goblets and boxes made of a soft, fine-grained, durable gray-greenish stone called chlorite. The Jiroft artifacts are a “missing link” in understanding the Bronze Age, Madjidzadeh says, because they help explain why so many incised chlorite vessels, all with remarkably similar imagery, have turned up at widely separated ancient sites, from Mari in Syria to Nippur and Ur in Mesopotamia, Soch in Uzbekistan and the Saudi Arabian island of Tarut, north of Bahrain. Until now, the principal center of production of these vessels was a mystery. Jiroft artisans fashioned pieces with what seems strange and enigmatic iconography. Some were encrusted with lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, carnelian from the Indus Valley, turquoise, agate and other semiprecious, imported stones. “The artists had such a naturalistic way of rendering images,” says Madjidzadeh. “It is a style that was not seen anywhere else in that era.” Excerpts of the article that appeared on pages 2-11 of the September/October 2004 print edition of Saudi Aramco World.

Text #8945

Jacobsen & Adams. "Salinity and Irrigation Agriculture in Antiquity". Bibliotheca Mesopotamica. Vol. 14
[pp. 1251--1252]

The earliest occupation [of Kish] lasted essentially unchanged from Ubaid times through Warka and Protoliterate into the Early Dynastic Period. Toward the end of that period and in the following period of Agade, however, signs of a distinct setback became noticeable. In Tel Agrab, for instance, there is evidence of widespread abandonment of settled areas in the town during the middle and later range of Early Dynastic including even the main temple. At Tel Asmar the remains show the city beginning to shrink in size at the end of Early Dynastic to contract during the Agade Period, leaving large areas of houses and streets of these periods abandoned. At Khafaje, finally, the whole town, flourishing down to the end of the Early Dynastic Period, had by Agade times been completely deserted by its inhabitants. To this evidence from major sites may be added that of a large number of smaller towns in the region where the survey showed end or interruption of occupation at these periods. Our pictures of how many such towns were deserted is, however, probably incomplete since in many cases later reoccupation will have covered up traces of previous abandonment.

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