Geographical sites:

  • Thera (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #599973)
    Pleiades_icon Thera (island) island Geocontext: Santorini GRE
    Description: An island of the southern Aegean Sea, Thera is the southernmost of the Cyclades. The island's present form is the result of a Middle Bronze Age volcanic eruption that destroyed a Minoan settlement on the island.
  • China (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #1814991)
    Geonames_icon People’s Republic of China independent political entity
  • North America (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #6255149)
    Geonames_icon North America continent Geocontext: America/Cambridge_Bay
  • Antarctica (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #6632699)
    Geonames_icon Antarctica arctic land Geocontext: Antarctica/McMurdo
  • Crete (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #589748)
    Pleiades_icon Creta Ins. island Geocontext: island
    Description: The island of Crete is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

Citations:

Text #8946

Whipps. "How The Eruption of Thera Changed the World"

HTML URL: http://www.livescience.com/4846-eruption-...

The world map might look differently had the Greek volcano Thera not erupted 3,500 years ago in what geologists believe was the single-most powerful explosive event ever witnessed.

Thera didn’t just blow a massive hole into the island of Santorini – it set the entire ancient Mediterranean onto a different course, like a train that switched tracks to head off in a brand new direction.

Minoan culture, the dominant civilization in the Mediterranean at the time, crumbled as a result of the eruption, historians believe, changing the political landscape of the ancient world indefinitely. Environmental effects were felt across the globe, as far away as China and perhaps even North America and Antarctica.

The legend of Atlantis and the story of the Biblical plagues and subsequent exodus from Egypt have also been connected to the epic catastrophe.

Dwarfed the atomic bomb

Historians and archaeologists have had trouble deciding on the year Thera erupted, with dates ranging anywhere from 1645 BC to 1500 BC. Studies of ash deposits on the ocean floor have revealed, however, that when the volcano did blow, it did so with a force dwarfing anything humans had ever seen or have seen since.

There are no first-person accounts of what happened that day, but scientists can compare it to the detailed records available from the famous eruption of Krakatoa, Indonesia, in 1883.

That fiery explosion killed upwards of 40,000 people in just a few hours, produced colossal tsunamis 40 feet tall, spewed volcanic ash across Asia, and caused a drop in global temperatures and created strangely colored sunsets for three years. The blast was heard 3,000 miles away.

Thera’s eruption was four or five times more powerful than Krakatoa, geologists believe, exploding with the energy of several hundred atomic bombs in a fraction of a second.

An absence of human remains and valuables like metal suggest that the Minoan residents of Santorini predicted the eruption and the island was evacuated, but the culture as a whole did not fare as well.

Based on the nearby island of Crete, the powerful Minoan civilization declined suddenly soon after Thera blew its top. Tsunamis spawned by the eruption would have swamped its naval fleet and coastal villages first off, historians think. A drop in temperatures caused by the massive amounts of sulphur dioxide spouted into the atmosphere then led to several years of cold, wet summers in the region, ruining harvests. The lethal combination overran every mighty Minoan stronghold in less than 50 years.

In just a short time, their peaceful, efficient bureaucracy made way for the warring city-state system of ancient Greece to dominate the Mediterranean. The Aegean would turn out to be a fundamental building block for the history of Europe, and the Minoan decline changed its early foundation completely.

Text #8960

Editorial comment by Laura Knight-Jadczyk

The dating of the Theran eruption has been corrected to 1650 BC by Manning et al. See E#5160

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