Geographical sites:

  • Indus (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #59851)
    Pleiades_icon Indus/Sinthos/Phison (river) river Geocontext: Indus Skt.: Sindhu Avst.: Hīndu
    Description: The Indus River flows 3,180 km (1,980 mi). from the Tibetan Plateau to the Arabian Sea.
  • Seistan (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #1124306)
    Geonames_icon Sīstān region Geocontext: Asia/Kabul
    Description: IR


Text #9005

Mandelkehr. The 2300 BC Event. Series: The 2300 BC Event. Vol. 1
[pp. 71--72]

By the beginning of the third millennium, there is evidence of a fairly dramatic extension of settlements of agriculturalists onto the floodplains of the Indus … by the middle of the third millennium, the population was expanding rapidly… there were sites almost from the mouth of the Indus to the foothills of the Himalayas and from west of the Indus to well beyond the modern borders of India… Several of the sites of this period appear to have been surrounded by massive defensive walls…

The evidence shows that the area covered by the Indus Civilization was larger than any of the known civilizations of the ancient world….1

At about 2300 BC, all sites over the entire geographical area – the settlements of the Pre-Harappan, Hilmand, and Namazga III cultural groups – were abandoned, some of them destroyed.

In the southernmost Indus Valley, the region was completely abandoned by the Pre-Harappan people, with the Harappan people occupying the region afterward. In the northernmost Tedzen delta in Turkmenistan, the region was deserted by the Namazga III people with the Namazga IV people replacing them a little later. Most dramatically, in the central Seistan area, the sites were abandoned with no resettlement whatsoever. […]

The 2300 BC cultural boundary has been established both by radiocarbon measurements and by cultural parallels between sites in this region and in Mesopotamia.

Many of the sites in the three regions have been discovered to have been destroyed by fire and earthquake. Aridity abruptly occurred in the region. […]

… there is evidence of site destruction and complete abandonment throughout the Indus Valley. Althought there is some variance to the dating measurements, there is general agreement that the end of the Pre-Harappan period in the Indus valley occurred at all sites.2 […]

Violent destruction of sites occurred in this area…. thick layers of ash suggestive of a major conflagration have been found.

  1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia Vol. 9 (1971), pp. 105-112. Quoted by Mandelkehr.

  2. D. P. Agrawal: The Copper Bronze Age in India, (Munshiram Manoharlal, 1971), pp. 71, 96, 102-104. see also D. P. Agrawal: The Archaeology of India, (Curzon, 1982), p. 188 and A. Sarma: “Decline of Harappan Cultures: A Re-Look”, East and West Vol. 27 (1977), p. 326

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