Geographical sites:

  • Indus (click here to focus in map) (see also Pleiades #59851)
    Pleiades_icon Indus/Sinthos/Phison (river) river Geocontext: Indus Skt.: Sindhu Avst.: Hīndu
    Description: The Indus River flows 3,180 km (1,980 mi). from the Tibetan Plateau to the Arabian Sea.


Text #9007

Mandelkehr. The 2300 BC Event. Series: The 2300 BC Event. Vol. 1
[pp. 75--76]

Most of the Indus valley sites were reoccupied by a new people designated as the Harappan as discussed by Mughal and Lal. At Kalibangan I, there was a period of abandonment before the new Harappan people came in. At other sites auch as Amri, Kot Diji, Harappa, and Mohenjo-dara, according to bothe Mughal and Lal, materials belonging to the mature Harappan phase are found directly above materials from late phases of the indigenous Pre-Harappans of that region.1 […]

There is uncertainty and much speculation as to the origin of the Harappan culture, whether it originated from the pre-Harappan or outside the region.2 Sankalia feels that the Harappan pottery features suggest a western Asian origin.3

Possehl has identified major changes in going from the Pre-Harappan to the Harappan cultures: (1) the sudden emergence of writing, (2) the development of a wide variety of features associated with town planning … (3) the appearance of a widely used system of weights and measures, and (4) cultural advancement, such as social stratification, craft and career specialization, emergence of new forms of technology and economic configurations, social regulation, and a state religion. He refers to the transition as a “paroxysm of changing”, occurring in as short a period as 100 years.4 Importantly, the earliest working of bronze in India occurred at the beginning of the Harappan period5 similar to the northernmost region in central Asia.

  1. M. R. Mughal: The Early Harappan Period in the Greater Indus Valley and Northern Baluchistan (c. 3000 - 2400 B.C.), (PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1970, pp. 3, 4, 48, 52, 101, 102. See also: B. B. Lal: “Kalibangan and the Indus Civilization”, in D. P. Agrawal, D. K. Chakrabarti (eds): Essays in Indian Protohistory, (B. R. Publishing, 1979), p. 75. [OF]

  2. M. A. Konishi: “Pre or Early Harappan Culture: A conceptual Battle”, in B. B. Lal, S. P. Gupta (eds): Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, (Sharma, (1984), pp. 37-42; see also D. K. Chakrabarti: “Origin of the Indus Civilzation: Theories and Problem, In B. B. Lal, S. P. Gupta (eds): Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, (Sharma, 1984), pp. 43-53. [OF]

  3. R. L. Raikes: “The End of the Ancient Cities of the Indus”, American Anthropologist Vol. 66 (1964), p. 295. [OF]

  4. G. L. Possehl: “Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization”, Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 19 (1990), pp. 268, 269, 274, 275.[OF]

  5. D. Mandal: Radiocarbon Dates and Indian Archaeology, (Vaishali, 1972), pp. 8,9, 42-44. [OF]

Please view our Legal Notice before you make use of this Database.

See also our Credits page for info on data we are building upon.