Geographical sites:

  • North Atlantic Ocean (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #3411923)
    Geonames_icon North Atlantic Ocean ocean Geocontext: America/Danmarkshavn
  • Greenland (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #3425505)
    Geonames_icon Greenland dependent political entity Description: GL
  • Norway (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #3144096)
    Geonames_icon Kingdom of Norway independent political entity Geocontext: Europe/Oslo
  • China (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #1814991)
    Geonames_icon People’s Republic of China independent political entity
  • Folgefonna (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #3156885)
    Geonames_icon Folgefonni glacier(s) Geocontext: Europe/Oslo
    Description: NO
  • Jostedalsbreen (click here to focus in map) (see also GeoNames #3144729)
    Geonames_icon Jostedalsbreen glacier(s) Geocontext: Europe/Oslo
    Description: NO


Text #9332

"Bond Event", in Wikipedia.

Bond events are North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≈1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. Eight such events have been identified, primarily from fluctuations in ice-rafted debris. Bond events may be the interglacial relatives of the glacial Dansgaard–Oeschger events, with a magnitude of perhaps 15–20% of the glacial-interglacial temperature change.

Gerard C. Bond of the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University, was the lead author of the 1997 paper that postulated the theory of 1,470-year climate cycles in the Holocene, mainly based on petrologic tracers of drift ice in the North Atlantic.

The existence of climatic changes, possibly on a quasi-1,500 year cycle, is well established for the last glacial period from ice cores. Less well established is the continuation of these cycles into the holocene. Bond et al. (1997) argue for a cyclicity close to 1470 ± 500 years in the North Atlantic region, and that their results imply a variation in Holocene climate in this region. In their view, many if not most of the Dansgaard–Oeschger events of the last ice age, conform to a 1,500-year pattern, as do some climate events of later eras, like the Little Ice Age, the 8.2 kiloyear event, and the start of the Younger Dryas.

The North Atlantic ice-rafting events happen to correlate with most weak events of the Asian monsoon for at least the past 9,000 years,[4][5] while also correlating with most aridification events in the Middle East for the past 55,000 years (both Heinrich and Bond events). Also, there is widespread evidence that a ≈1,500 yr climate oscillation caused changes in vegetation communities across all of North America.

For reasons that are unclear, the only Holocene Bond event that has a clear temperature signal in the Greenland ice cores is the 8.2 kyr event.

The hypothesis holds that the 1,500-year cycle displays nonlinear behavior and stochastic resonance; not every instance of the pattern is a significant climate event, though some rise to major prominence in environmental history. Causes and determining factors of the cycle are under study; researchers have focused attention on variations in solar output, and “reorganizations of atmospheric circulation.” Bond events may also be correlated with the 1800-year lunar tidal cycle.

0 ≈0.5 ka Little Ice Age
1 ≈1.4 ka Migration Period
2 ≈2.8 ka early 1st millennium BC drought in the Eastern Mediterranean, possibly triggering the collapse of Late Bronze Age cultures.
3 ≈4.2 ka 4.2 kiloyear event; collapse of the Akkadian Empire and the end of the Egyptian Old Kingdom.
4 ≈5.9 ka See 5.9 kiloyear event;
5 ≈8.2 ka See 8.2 kiloyear event;
6 ≈9.4 ka Erdalen event of glacier activity in Norway, as well as with a cold event in China.
7 ≈10.3 ka 8 ≈11.1 ka transition from the Younger Dryas to the boreal.

Text #9341

Bakke & Dahl & Nesje. "Lateglacial and early Holocene palaeoclimatic reconstruction based on glacier fluctuations and equilibrium-line altitudes at northern Folgefonna, Hardanger, western Norway". Journal of Quaternary Science. Vol. 20
[pp. 179--198]


Northern Folgefonna (c. 23 km2), is a nearly circular maritime ice cap located on the Folgefonna Peninsula in Hardanger, western Norway. By combining the position of marginal moraines with AMS radiocarbon dated glacier-meltwater induced sediments in proglacial lakes draining northern Folgefonna, a continuous high-resolution record of variations in glacier size and equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) during the Lateglacial and early Holocene has been obtained. After the termination of the Younger Dryas (c. 11 500 cal. yr BP), a short-lived (100–150 years) climatically induced glacier readvance termed the ‘Jondal Event 1’ occurred within the ‘Preboreal Oscillation’ (PBO) c. 11 100 cal. yr BP. Bracketed to 10 550–10 450 cal. yr BP, a second glacier readvance is named the ‘Jondal Event 2’. A third readvance occurred about 10 000 cal. yr BP and corresponds with the ‘Erdalen Event 1’ recorded at Jostedalsbreen. An exponential relationship between mean solid winter precipitation and ablation-season temperature at the ELA of Norwegian glaciers is used to reconstruct former variations in winter precipitation based on the corresponding ELA and an independent proxy for summer temperature. Compared to the present, the Younger Dryas was much colder and drier, the ‘Jondal Event 1’/PBO was colder and somewhat drier, and the ‘Jondal Event 2’ was much wetter. The ‘Erdalen Event 1’ started as rather dry and terminated as somewhat wetter. Variations in glacier magnitude/ELAs and corresponding palaeoclimatic reconstructions at northern Folgefonna suggest that low-altitude cirque glaciers (lowest altitude of marginal moraines 290 m) in the area existed for the last time during the Younger Dryas. These low-altitude cirque glaciers of suggested Younger Dryas age do not fit into the previous reconstructions of the Younger Dryas ice sheet in Hardanger.

Please view our Legal Notice before you make use of this Database.

See also our Credits page for info on data we are building upon.