Pliny the Elder
Other names/monikers: Gaius Plinius Secundus
Died: 79AD Aug. 25
Description: Gaius Plinius Secundus, better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing or investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, he wrote an encyclopedic work, Naturalis Historia, which became a model for all other encyclopedias.
- Natural History. Series: Natural History. Vol. 1. Translated by H. Rackham. Harvard University Press. 1938. (10 Vols.).
- Natural History. Series: Natural History. Vol. 1. Translated by H. Rackham. Harvard University Press. 1967. (10 Vols.).
- Natural History. Vol. 1. Translated by John Bostock and H. T. Riley. George Bell and Sons. 1900. (6 Vols.).
- Natural History. (A Selection) Translated by John F. Healy. Penguin Books Ltd. 1991.
- Natural History. Series: Natural History. Vol. 9. Translated by H. Rackham. Harvard University Press. 1961. (10 Vols.).
- 975BC: Terrible comet-like ball of fire seen over Ethiopia and Egypt
- 612BC± 2y : Venus "casts a shadow by its rays" (Pythagoras)
- 584BC May 28: First predicted solar eclipse, Thales of Miletus
- 544BC: Earthquake predicted by Pherecydes of Syros
- 480BC Sep.± 1y : Horn shaped Comet, Battle of Salamis
- 478BC± 11y : Colonists abandon island of Pithecussae due to volcanic eruptions
- 472BC: Following volcanic eruption on Pithecussae, the sea retreated then turned back and deluged the island.
- 472BC± 2y : Mount Epopos shot forth fire, collapse of land, great noise
- 466BC± 1y : Meteorite falls at Aegospotami while bright comet is passing; Halley
- 464BC: Sparta destroyed by earthquake, rocks fall from mountain peaks
- 461BC: Rained flesh that did not turn bad
- 413BC Aug. 27: Lunar eclipse caused Nicias to delay abandoning the siege of Syracuse leading to destruction of Athenian forces
- 394BC: "Meteoric lights, beams" at Battle of Cnidus
- 349BC: Bloody chasm in the sky, fire falling, aurora?
- 345BC± 1y : Timoleon's Torch; a 'Mane-shaped' comet changed into a spear
- 331BC Sep. 20: Lunar eclipse eleven days before battle of Gaugamela
- 226BC: Major Rhodes earthquake causes colossus to collapse, three meters uplift
- 223BC: Three moons visible from Italy
- 217BC Jun. 24: Mountains cleft asunder, rivers blocked by earthquake during Battle of Lake Trasimene
- 217BC Jun. 24: Battle of Lake Trasimene; Hannibal massacres Roman army
- 217BC: Fifty-seven earthquakes in the year of the Battle of Lake Trasimene; cities overthrown, rivers diverted, cliffs torn away
- 198BC± 1y : Emergence of the island Hiera; the whole sea boiled and blazed
- 174BC: Three suns seen in the consulships of Spurius Postumius and Quintus Mucius
- 168BC: Fireball as big as the moon seen when Paulus was engaged in the war against Perseus; At Lanuvium a blazing torch was seen in the sky
- 126BC: Eruption of Etna; island emerges burning with violent blast
- 126BC: Fire and gases erupting from the sea off northern Sicily; many fish killed, people sickened, killed
- 122BC: Eruption of Mount Etna destroys city of Catania
- 122BC± 1y : Sun veiled in dust; haloes; darkness for several days following Etna eruption
- 118BC: Three suns seen at once during consulships of Quintus Marcius and Marcus Porcius
- 115BC: Thunderbolt strikes temple of Juno during consulship of Marcus Aemilius Scaurus
- 114BC: Sky rained milk and blood in the consulship of Manius Acilius and Gaius Porcius
- 114BC: Halo around the sun in the consulships of Gaius Porcius and Manius Acilius
- 113BC: 'Night-suns’ seen in the consulship of Gaius Caccilius and Gnaeus Papirius
- 104BC: Clanging armour and the sounding of a trumpet were heard from the sky
- 101BC: Clanging armor, trumpet sounds from sky, Battle of Vercellae
- 91BC± 2y : Islands burned several days, sea burned during the Social War
- 91BC: Possible Tunguska-like event or comet/asteroid impact in northern Italy
- 90BC: Red halo around the sun observed from Rome
- 86BC: Fireball like "burning shield scattering sparks", observed in Rome
- 82BC: Proscriptions of Sulla
- 76BC: In the western sky, comet with a terrible glare during the consulship of Gnaeus Octavius
- 73BC: Town-councillor of Pompei, Marcus Herennius, struck by a thunderbolt on a fine day.
- 67BC: Island appeared among the Cyclades
- 53BC: It rained iron the shape of sponges in Lucania
- 50BC: It rained wool in the vicinity of Compsa Castle; rained bricks
- 49BC± 1y : A terrifying star during the war between Pompey and Caesar
- 49BC: Many towers destroyed by thunderbolts in Italy during civil war
- 48BC: Death of Milo, murderer of Clodius; at Compsa Castle, site of prodigies the previous years